OCR support material – Aristotle

GCE RELIGIOUS STUDIES

OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Religious Studies: H172

Unit: G571

Here is the entire set of support materials, with Aristotle first. If you look at each section, the support materials are there for each section as well.

Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time10 hoursTopicAncient Greek influences on Religious Philosophy
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction to Philosophy of Religion
  • Introduce the module by discussing why people believe in God and where belief might come from. Introduce key words: reason and revelation.
  • Explain that these terms may be seen as summaries of the Greek and Judaeo-Christian view respectively.
  • Explore the idea of the Philosopher; what images does the word bring to mind? Explain that Philosophers use arguments. Define key terms such as “argument” and “proof”.
  • The Monty Python argument sketch (or the philosophers’ football match) may bring light relief!
  • The letters in Chapter 1 of Sophie’s World may also provide an interesting alternative view on the subject of “what is Philosophy”.
Plato: the Analogy of the Cave:

Knowledge and understanding of what might be represented in the Analogy of the Cave

  • Introduce the story of the cave. Invite students to consider how the prisoner would feel at each point of the journey.
  • Main points provided through card sorting exercise. First putting elements of the story into order; then matching aspects of story to symbolic meaning.
  • Sketches of the cave can be easily obtained from the Internet; it may be                    helpful if the image is put onto OHT or the interactive whiteboard.
  • Students could be shown a clip of a film such as The Matrix or The Truman Show in which “reality” is questioned.
Discuss critically the validity of the points being made in the analogy.
  • Explain different interpretations of the cave and the implications of the allegory for Plato’s epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and politics.
  • Discussion: Is Plato successful? Build up a list of strengths and weaknesses.
  • More able students may be able to engage with the text (The Republic 514A-521B).
Plato: the concept of the Forms; the Form of the Good
  • Stimulus: Give students pictures of several different chairs (or other items). What do they have in common? Follow up with pictures of beautiful things (a model, a painting, a sunset). What is beauty itself?
  • Explain Plato’s answer that they share in the ideal standard; the form of idea. These are more real than our world of the senses.
  • The Philosophy Files by Stephen Law has an excellent chapter – “What is Real?” – explaining the Forms.
The relationship between concepts and phenomena

The relationship between the Form of the Good and the other Forms

  • Explain that the Form is the opposite of the Particulars. Give words that describe particulars and invite students to suggest words for the forms.
  • What do the perfect forms have in common with each other? Introduce the notion of the Good.
  • Plato responds to Heraclitus’ idea that everything (in this world) changes. Students may wish to discuss whether we really can step into the same river twice.
Discuss critically the validity of the Forms
  • Paired activity – students use library books, handouts or the internet to come up with the strengths and weaknesses of the Forms.
  • Students could then use these to produce a model answer or a Socratic dialogue exploring the coherence of the Forms.
  • Foundations for the Study of Religion (Ahluwalia)
  • Exploring Ethics pack (Hayward, Jones & Mason) has a couple of humorous examples of Socratic dialogues.
Aristotle: ideas about cause and purpose in relation to God

Aristotle’s understanding of material, efficient, formal and final cause

  • The relationship between Plato and Aristotle, Aristotle rebels against his teacher. Show picture of Plato and Aristotle; what is the significance of their hand gestures? Invite students to think of and draw an object (eg a statue of a singer or footballer). What causes it to be as it is? How does it change? Relate the four causes to this object.
  • Painting by Raphael – “The School of Athens”, covered in The Thinker’s Guide to God (Vardy & Arliss)
  • Foundations for the Study of Religion (Ahluwalia)
  • In the painting, Plato is pointing upwards as if to say “the truth is out there”. Aristotle points towards the ground. As an empiricist he asserts that the truth is found in this world of the senses.
  • Consolidate by getting students to apply causes to other objects. Why do you think that Aristotle is interested in this question?
Aristotle’s concept of the Prime Mover
  • Link cause to Prime Mover. What is the explanation of the universe as a whole?
  • Split students into two groups, evaluating either the ideas on cause or the Prime Mover. Each group reports back.
  • Foundations for the Study of Religion (Ahluwalia)
  • The Thinker’s Guide to God (Vardy & Arliss)
  • Consider how both Plato and Aristotle have been influential, particularly to Christianity.
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time6 hoursTopicJudaeo-Christian Influence on the Philosophy of Religion
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
The concept of God as                  Creator:

The way the Bible presents God as involved with his creation;

  • Introduce topic and give pairs of students copies of Genesis Chapters 1 and 2. What similarities or differences are there in the account? Give guidance on writing up findings in a table.
  • Explain briefly the idea of source criticism and the context in which each story was believed to be written. Revisit table and suggest reasons for differences.
Imagery of God as craftsman;

Creatio ex nihilo;

  • Students to work on structured piece of writing exploring the concept of God as creator using notes from previous lesson and other resources. Key areas include: How is God presented in each story? Is the creation ex-nihilo?
  • Foundations for the Study of Religion (Ahluwalia)
The concepts of omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence;

Compare this view with Aristotle’s Prime Mover.

  • Present students with a list of the traditional attributes of God. Match these words to a set of jumbled definitions.
  • Discuss which of the attributes would also be an attribute of Aristotle’s Prime Mover. What is the difference between the Jewish and Greek ideas of God?
  • Chapters 2 & 3 of The Thinker’s guide to God (Vardy & Arliss)
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time6 hoursTopicJudaeo-Christian Influence on the Philosophy of Religion
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Discuss, whether, if God created the universe, God is therefore responsible for everything that happens in it
  • Class debate: “If God creates everything, He is responsible for everything.” Key issues may include the problem of evil, free will, evolution, etc.
  • Students to write a couple of paragraphs summarising the discussion.
The goodness of God
  • Stimulus: Give students a series of sentences describing things as good, eg a good night out, a good dog, a good table, a good person, etc. What does the word good mean in each context? What does it mean to say that God is Good?
  • Issue different passages from the Bible to each group. Groups to report back to class on what happens and how it shows God to be Good.
  • A modern translation of the Bible
  • A wide selection of passages to show the different aspects of God’s goodness is essential. Passages may include the Ten Commandments, the answering of Hannah’s prayer, or a prophecy of judgement from the OT.
Consider whether, in a biblical context, God commands things because they are good, or whether things are good because God commands them.
  • Stimulus: Present students with some strange OT commands. Briefly explain the difficulty of linking God and morality. What are the consequences for each of the options? Students write up discussion.
  • Ethical Studies (Bowie)
  • Ethics (Simon Blackburn) has a spoof internet letter entitled “Dear Dr Laura” which parodies some unusual OT commands by applying them to modern situations.
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time8 hoursTopicThe teleological argument
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction
  • General discussion: Do students believe in God? Why, or why not? What arguments can be brought?
  • Write up discussion.
  • This activity will vary according to the group and whether they studied                    the topic at GCSE.
  • The Battleground God game is a fun way of seeing if your beliefs on God are coherent.
The teleological argument from Aquinas and Paley
  • Issue students in groups with simple jigsaws. Some groups attempt to solve the jigsaws blindfolded, others by sight. Discuss what was learned. Is a complex thing like the universe more likely to be the product of design or chance? Is the jigsaw task a fair analogy?
  • Explain a simple version of the teleological argument for students to note in stages.
  • Try simple children’s jigsaws of 20-30 pieces. Students could make their own if time allows.
  • Any activity that pits intelligence against chance will make the point.
  • Alternatively students can be asked to go and find objects that appear designed by nature, by a human, or would be believed to be designed by God.
  • Explain and lead discussion on Paley’s analogy of the watch.
  • Students to make guided notes on the arguments of Aquinas and Paley. Attempt to write Aquinas’ fifth way in plain English and compare it to Paley’s argument. What is similar/different? Whose is more successful?
  • Philosophy of Religion (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • The Question of God (Palmer) contains the extract from Paley.
Challenges to it from Hume; there could be other explanations for the apparent order of the universe
  • Research the criticisms that Hume makes of this argument. Write the criticisms in plain English. Rank them and attempt to write a response on behalf of the Theist.
  • Philosophy of Religion (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • A Beginner’s Guide to Ideas (Raeper & Smith)
  • The Question of God (Palmer) contains an extract from Hume.
Challenges to it from Mill and Darwin.
  • Students to take notes from Mill’s criticism and Darwin’s criticism from either video or text.
Darwinist challenges that order comes through evolution and not a divine mind
  • Students consolidate work on Darwin by producing a presentation explaining his ideas on evolution and how it affects this argument.
  • Assess whether Darwin’s ideas make it impossible to believe in God.
  • Philosophy of Religion (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • A Beginner’s Guide to Ideas (Raeper & Smith)
  • The Question of God (Palmer) contains an extract from Darwin.
  • The Philosophy Files (Stephen                    Law) contains a chapter entitled “Does God exist?”
  • Examine the modern debate on the teleological argument. Consider the anthropic principle, Swinburne and the criticism of Dawkins.
  • Teleological argument video (Dialogue Education – Peter Vardy)
  • Is there a God? (Swinburne)
  • The God Delusion (Dawkins)
  • This is an opportunity to stretch able students and engage interest.
Exam practice
  • Past examination question on topic. Students to carry out peer marking using levels of response.
  • Past papers
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time8 hoursTopicThe problem of evil
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction to the problem of evil
  • Link from previous topic. Is world well designed? Brainstorm the “evils” in the world. Which are natural, which are moral? Formulate the classic problem of evil; the inconsistent triad. What responses can be made? What is a theodicy?
  • The Thinker’s Guide to Evil (Vardy & Arliss)
The nature of the problem of evil, and the perceived differences between natural and moral evil
  • Students produce either a picture montage or a slide show illustrating either natural or moral evil. Appropriate music could be selected to play alongside the slide show.
  • Newspapers, internet images, photographs
The classic theodicy of Augustine: how it understands the responsibility or otherwise of God for the existence of evil in the world and the role of human free will
  • Present Augustine’s theodicy. Students use notes to produce flow chart diagram highlighting key ideas such as fall, free will, privation and predestination.
  • What difficulties might this theodicy raise?
  • Philosophy of Religion (Cole)
  • Philosophy of Religion for A Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • The Thinker’s Guide to Evil (Vardy & Arliss)
The strengths and weaknesses of the approach
  • Evaluate Augustine’s response to both natural and moral evil either as table of strengths and weaknesses or by writing a dialogue.
  • Philosophy of Religion (Cole)
  • Philosophy of Religion for A Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time8 hoursTopicThe problem of evil
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
The classic theodicy of Irenaeus; how it understands the responsibility or otherwise of God for the existence of evil in the world and the role of human free will
  • Begin with moderate stretching exercises. Does it hurt? Is it good for them?
  • Read extract from Lance Armstrong’s autobiography where he indicates that having cancer has transformed his life.
  • Link each of the above to Irenaeus’ theodicy. Explain key points.
  • Students use resources to make notes or produce a diagram.
  • It’s Not About the Bike (Lance Armstrong)
  • Philosophy of Religion for A                    Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • Students could explore how the theodicy is developed by Hick if time allows.
The strengths and weaknesses of this approach
  • Create a muddled list of strengths and weaknesses of Irenaeus. Students sort into two columns; to write personal responses to each point.
  • Philosophy of Religion for A                    Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • This could be used as an opportunity to model exam technique by showing students how to turn a series of random points into a coherent part b answer.
Augustine and Irenaeus, critical comparison.
  • Students to produce a table to compare the two theodicies. For each of the key headings consider what does each thinker say, who is better, and why.
  • Key headings could include Free Will, The Role of God, the Role of Evil, the Origins of Evil, etc.
  • Notes from previous lesson
Consolidation
  • Transform classroom into courtroom for the case against God. Select two able students to be prosecution and defence lawyers. Allow others to cross examine or ask questions.
  • Extract from the film The Man                    Who Sued God may provide an appropriate stimulus.
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time6 hoursTopicThe Cosmological Argument
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction
  • Set up a domino rally using dominoes or textbooks. What causes each item to fall? What started the chain of events? Link to the start of the universe.
  • Present a simple cosmological argument. How is this different from the teleological argument?
  • Dominoes or old textbooks
The cosmological argument from Aquinas: his understanding of the need for evidence in establishing the reasonableness of belief in the existence of God – his presentation of the cosmological argument in the Five Ways
  • Compare Aquinas’ first and second way (motion and causation). What strengths and weaknesses are present?
  • Introduce the third way, argument from contingency, step by step. Explain difference between necessary and                    contingent.
  • Philosophy for AS and A2 (Burns and Law)
  • The Question of God (Michael Palmer)
Challenges to it from Hume; his criticisms of the view that the existence of the universe is evidence for the existence of God
  • Present jumbled list of the criticisms of David Hume. Students write each one in their own words and link to the argument of Aquinas.
  • Students could discuss Hume’s view on causation. Is he right to suggest that we have no good reason to expect the sun to rise in the morning?
  • “Why expect the sun to rise tomorrow?” (chapter in The Philosophy Gym by Stephen Law)
  • More able students may see Hume’s problem of induction and causality as raising difficulties for science.
Critical discussion of their views
  • Consider whether Aquinas or Hume’s argument is stronger.
  • Philosophy of Religion (Peter Cole)
The arguments put forward by Copleston in the 1948 radio debate with Russell and Russell’s counter-arguments
  • Introduce the debate and look at extracts on the cosmological argument. Students to imagine they are presenting a highlights programme. To summarise key points of what each has said.
  • Transcript of part of the Copleston-Russell debate (available on the internet or from Russell’s book Why I am not a Christian)
  • The Question of God (Palmer)
  • Students could present this as “Philosophy: Match of the Day”. They could role-play this and imagine that they are commentators analysing the arguments.
  • Students to write Copleston’s argument in steps.
  • Structured written work on Russell. What are his key criticisms? Is the view that the universe is a “brute fact”                    answering or avoiding the question?
  • Consider who “won” the debate. What do you think and why?
  • The Puzzle of God (Vardy)
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time8 hoursTopicReligion and Science
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction
  • Stimulus article: Richard Dawkins criticises Emmanuel School, Gateshead where the head of science is a creationist.
  • Students consider whether the teacher’s views are a problem. Is he entitled to his beliefs? Is he still a scientist?
  • Brief history of some conflicts between science and religion: Galileo, the Scopes monkey trial, etc. Students to produce a timeline showing clashes between religion and science.
  • Article from the BBC
  • Philosophy of Religion for A                    Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • Questions about God (Patrick Clarke)
Scientific and philosophical views on the creation of the universe

The views of Charles Darwin

  • Review work done on teleological argument. Recap Darwin’s views.
  • Review creation story covered in Judaeo-Christian influences on philosophy. Discuss the different ways that believers may interpret the story.
  • Are science and faith incompatible?
  • Questions about God (Patrick Clarke)
Darwinism and various developments of evolutionary theory

Creationism and the Big Bang

  • Dawkins and the selfish gene – why does Dawkins reject the idea of God?
  • What do creationists believe? Ideas of young Earth and apparent age considered.
  • Extracts from The Selfish Gene (Dawkins) are available on the internet.
  • The God Delusion (Dawkins) provides a good summary of his views on religion. It is likely to be accessible to most students.
Intelligent design and irreducible complexity

The views of John Polkinghorne and Michael Behe

  • Briefly introduce the concept of intelligent design, the Dover school controversy and the idea of irreducible complexity (Behe).
  • Introduce key points of Polkinghorne’s view.
  • BBC Horizon programme (2006) covered this controversy
  • Questions about God (Patrick Clarke) contains material on Polkinghorne.
  • Debating Design (Dembski & Ruse eds) contains a number of essays by leading thinkers including Behe and Polkinghorne. It may be of help for background reading.
Critical discussion of these views; their strengths and weaknesses
  • Students to undertake a research project leading up to the writing of a structured report for governors of a faith school where the teaching of creation-evolution is an issue. The scientific, philosophical and theological issues to be explored.
  • There is scope for more able students to consider religious thinkers who use evolution in their ideas, such as process theologians and Teilhard de Chardin.
  • The project will take at least two lessons and may be extended if there is time or interest.
  • Feedback on project and class discussion. Students to debate whether in their opinion religion and science are compatible.
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time5 hoursTopicThe moral argument
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction to the moral argument
  • Discuss a hypothetical case of bullying. Is it wrong? Are there absolute values? Where do these values come from?
  • Present a simple version of the moral argument.
  • Alternatively the teacher picks on a student who has been primed in advance. Class attempts to persuade teacher that they are wrong.
The moral argument from Kant, including his concept of the summum bonum and his inferences about innate moral awareness
  • Review previous knowledge of Kant from ethics.
  • Students to work through differentiated resources to gain an understanding of his argument.
  • Plenary to discuss possible strengths and weaknesses.
  • Philosophy of Religion for A Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • Philosophy of Religion Folder (Highbury Publications)
  • The Question of God (Palmer) contains source material from Kant.
Freud’s challenges to the moral argument, his view that moral awareness comes from sources other than God
  • Review knowledge of Freud from previous topic. What would he logically have to say about morality?
  • Students to make notes on how Freud can be applied to this topic.
  • Class discussion leading to table of strengths and weaknesses.
  • Student notes from previous topic
Consolidation or exam practice
  • Use ICT facilities to produce a revision booklet for this topic or write model answers to possible exam questions.
  • www.tutor2u.net is a useful revision site and may be able to support those who are struggling.
Religious Studies H172: Philosophy of Religion G571
Suggested teaching time8 hoursTopicThe ontological argument
Topic outlineSuggested teaching and homework activitiesSuggested resourcesPoints to note
Introduction

The ontological argument from Anselm

Anselm’s understanding of God as a being than which nothing greater can be conceived

  • Review or explain the difference between a priori and a posteriori by issuing a set of statements. Which are proved by logic? Which by experience? Why is the ontological argument unusual?
  • Introduce Anselm’s first ontological argument step by step. Is there anything odd about this argument?
  • Philosophy of Religion: Access to Philosophy (Cole)
  • Have each step as a presentation or OHT.
  • Original texts available in The Question of God (Palmer) as well as on various internet sites.
  • Some students may be able to access the original sources.
Challenge from Gaunilo

Gaunilo’s analogy of the island in On Behalf of the Fool

  • Students to draw their perfect holiday island. Explain to them that it has to exist! Students may then be able to predict Gaunilo’s reasoning.
  • Explain Gaunilo’s attack in your own word.
  • The Question of God (Palmer)
The ontological argument from Anselm

His understanding of the differences between contingent and necessary existence

  • Anselm’s second ontological argument explored step by step. Review the words necessary and contingent.
  • Consider strengths and weaknesses of this argument. Does it counter Gaunilo?
  • Philosophy of Religion: Access to Philosophy (Cole)
  • Have each step as a presentation or OHT.
The ontological argument from Descartes

Descartes’ understanding of existence as a perfection which God cannot lack

  • Explore the properties of triangles. What has to be true of them?
  • Explain how Descartes uses this idea of necessity in relation to God. Formulate argument step by step.
  • Descartes’ Meditation 5 available on the internet and in Question of God (Palmer).
  • Introducing Descartes (Robinson & Garrett) – a cartoon guide!
  • Descartes: A Beginner’s Guide (Kevin O’Donnell)
Challenge from Kant

Kant’s argument that existence is not a predicate

  • Explain the difference between analytic and synthetic statements. Students to practise making analytic and synthetic statements about triangles, bachelors, etc. Explain that Kant argues that “God has necessary existence”, which is an analytic statement.
  • Draw up a list of attributes of a good RS teacher. What is added by having existence as a criterion? What if a candidate were to have all attributes except this one? Explain the link to Kant’s view that existence is not a predicate.
  • Layered OHTs showing two                    teachers/bicycles or other objects surrounded by list of properties. (Take one away and illustrate what happens to the properties if something does not have existence).
  • Questions about God (Patrick Clarke)
  • Source material for Kant available in The Question of God (Palmer)
  • Sample lesson plan
Consolidation or extension
  • Consolidation: students to produce a revision booklet giving key points of each thinker and strengths and weaknesses.
  • Extension: consider whether there is any place for the ontological argument today by researching modern versions such as those of Malcolm and Plantinga.
  • Philosophy of Religion: Access to Philosophy (Cole)
  • Philosophy of Religion for A Level (Jordan, Lockyer & Tate)
  • The Question of God (Palmer)
  • Differentiation by student choice: Depending on group and time students could do both activities or may choose to do one or the other depending on how confident they feel on the ontological argument.
Exam practice
  • Students to attempt a past question on this topic.
  • Past examination papers

Sample Lesson Plan: Religious Studies H172 Philosophy of Religion G571

Kant’s Criticism of the Ontological Argument

OCR recognises that the teaching of this qualification will vary greatly from school to school and from teacher to teacher. With that in mind, this lesson plan is offered as a possible approach but will be subject to modifications by the individual teacher.

Lesson length is assumed to be one hour.

Learning objectives for the lesson

Objective 1Students to understand Kant’s challenge to the Ontological Argument.
Objective 2Students to be able to explain his idea that existence is not a predicate.
Objective 3Students to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Kant’s argument.

Recap of previous experience and prior knowledge

  • Quiz on the ontological argument so far. How is the argument different from other arguments? Why does Anselm think that God has to exist? How does Gaunilo attempt to disprove this? What conclusions does Descartes come to about triangles? How does he apply this to God? Why do Descartes and Anselm think that these arguments will only work for God? (Could be differentiated so that questions get harder in the style of “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?”.

Content

TimeContent
10 minutesWarm-up activity to assess prior knowledge. Quiz “Who Wants to be an Ontological Millionaire?” as described above.
10 minutesExplanation: How to say absolutely nothing! Have some statements on OHT or slide such as “the bachelor is unmarried” or “the triangle has three sides”. What do you learn about the terms described? Explain that these are analytic statements. Contrast to synthetic statements. Students to write a definition of each of these terms.
15 minutesStudent activity: Check understanding by asking students to write both an analytic and a synthetic statement about 5-6 terms, eg a circle, a bicycle, a black box, etc.

Pupils to feed back their answers. Teacher to clarify if necessary. Explain that Kant thinks “God has necessary existence” is an analytic statement (ie We are merely defining what God would be if he existed).

TimeContent
15 minutesExplanation: The Job advertisement: Explain that the school/college is advertising for a new teacher. Invite students to make some statements about what the new teacher should be like. Write them on board in terms of the teacher (subject) and potential characteristic, eg good-looking (predicate). Draw two stick men on the board and announce that two suitable candidates have been found.

Explain that the only difference is that one has existence and one does not. Invite student to remove one of the stick men. Ask whether the properties will remain.

Explain Kant’s statement that existence is not a predicate.

10 minutesUsing appropriate resources, students to write a paragraph explaining how Kant’s objection can be applied to the ontological argument.

Consolidation

TimeContent
10 minutesStudents to feed back on written task. Teacher questions students to ensure they have understanding.
Homework: Consider whether Kant’s criticism destroys the ontological argument.

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